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In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied by all titles. Around 1840, CASTALUNA Platform Heels Wide Fit pay with visa for sale J50yrUXDJs
established the roots of the modern day advertising agency in Philadelphia. In 1842 Palmer bought large amounts of space in various newspapers at a discounted rate then resold the space at higher rates to advertisers. The actual ad – the copy, layout, and artwork – was still prepared by the company wishing to advertise; in effect, Palmer was a space broker. The situation changed when the first full-service advertising agency of N.W. Ayer Son was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia. Ayer Son offered to plan, create, and execute complete advertising campaigns for its customers. By 1900 the advertising agency had become the focal point of creative planning, and advertising was firmly established as a profession. Common Projects Bball lowtop sneakers Manchester for sale discount with credit card lowest price sale online discount cheap price yajeI
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Advertising increased dramatically in the United States as industrialization expanded the supply of manufactured products. In order to profit from this higher rate of production, industry needed to recruit workers as consumers of factory products. It did so through the invention of mass marketing designed to influence the population's economic behavior on a larger scale. Dorateymur Combat Boots from china cheap online EoFH3SDh
In the 1910s and 1920s, advertisers in the U.S. adopted the doctrine that human instincts could be targeted and harnessed – " Hogan stitchdetail hitop sneakers real for sale P4jRV
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Edward Bernays , a nephew of Adidas white Ultra Boost laceup sneakers 2014 newest Qxr844Mt
, became associated with the method and is sometimes called the founder of modern advertising and public relations. [22] Bernays claimed that:

"[The] general principle, that men are very largely actuated by motives which they conceal from themselves, is as true of mass as of individual psychology. It is evident that the successful propagandist must understand the true motives and not be content to accept the reasons which men give for what they do." [23]

Availability, inherent (Ai) [2] The probability that an item will operate satisfactorily at a given point in time when used under stated conditions in an ideal support environment. It excludes logistics time, waiting or administrative downtime, and preventive maintenance downtime. It includes corrective maintenance downtime. Inherent availability is generally derived from analysis of an engineering design and is calculated as the Adidas EQT Bask Adv sneakers outlet store cheap price GOmpVe1
(MTTF) divided by the mean time to failure plus the Rampage Scheena Womens Wedge Sandals sale cheap outlet 100% authentic 100% guaranteed for sale classic cheap price discount outlet locations KAZEWf
(MTTR). It is based on quantities under control of the designer.

Availability, achieved (Aa) New Balance 574 sneakers from china cheap price SaBZ8fyCU
The probability that an item will operate satisfactorily at a given point in time when used under stated conditions in an ideal support environment (i.e., that personnel, tools, spares, etc. are instantaneously available). It excludes logistics time and waiting or administrative downtime. It includes active preventive and corrective maintenance downtime.

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The probability that an item will operate satisfactorily at a given point in time when used in an actual or realistic operating and support environment. It includes logistics time, ready time, and waiting or administrative downtime, and both preventive and corrective maintenance downtime. This value is equal to the mean time between failure () divided by the mean time between failure plus the mean downtime (MDT). This measure extends the definition of availability to elements controlled by the logisticians and mission planners such as quantity and proximity of spares, tools and manpower to the hardware item.

Refer to Systems engineering for more details

If we are using equipment which has a mean time to failure (MTTF) of 81.5 years and mean time to repair (MTTR) of 1 hour:

Outage due to equipment in hours per year = 1/rate = 1/MTTF = 0.01235 hours per year.

Availability is well established in the literature of stochastic modeling and optimal maintenance . Barlow and Proschan [1975] define availability of a repairable system as "the probability that the system is operating at a specified time t." Blanchard [1998] gives a qualitative definition of availability as "a measure of the degree of a system which is in the operable and committable state at the start of mission when the mission is called for at an unknown random point in time." This definition comes from the MIL-STD-721. Lie, Hwang, and Tillman [1977] developed a complete survey along with a systematic classification of availability.

Availability measures are classified by either the time interval of interest or the mechanisms for the system The Last Conspiracy side stitch ankle boots sale really cheap Inexpensive geniue stockist sale online jh9JE
. If the time interval of interest is the primary concern, we consider instantaneous, limiting, average, and limiting average availability. The aforementioned definitions are developed in Barlow and Proschan [1975], Lie, Hwang, and Tillman [1977], and Nachlas [1998]. The second primary classification for availability is contingent on the various mechanisms for downtime such as the inherent availability, achieved availability, and operational availability. (Blanchard [1998], Lie, Hwang, and Tillman [1977]). Mi [1998] gives some comparison results of availability considering inherent availability.

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