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In June 1836, French newspaper Castañer platform ankle tie pumps professional online buy cheap classic 3Fl7O
was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowing it to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its Good Influence Black best sale for sale m06TZYW
and the formula was soon copied by all titles. Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roots of the modern day advertising agency in Philadelphia. In 1842 Palmer bought large amounts of space in various newspapers at a discounted rate then resold the space at higher rates to advertisers. The actual ad – the copy, layout, and artwork – was still prepared by the company wishing to advertise; in effect, Palmer was a space broker. The situation changed when the first full-service advertising agency of N.W. Ayer Son was founded in 1869 in Philadelphia. Ayer Son offered to plan, create, and execute complete advertising campaigns for its customers. By 1900 the advertising agency had become the focal point of creative planning, and advertising was firmly established as a profession. cheap price pre order Nike SB Solarsoft Portmore II Trainers In Grey 880268011 free shipping low shipping perfect find great ImRWcE
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to include advertisement brokerage, making it the first French group to organize. At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers. [19]

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A print advertisement for the 1913 issue of the .

Advertising increased dramatically in the United States as industrialization expanded the supply of manufactured products. In order to profit from this higher rate of production, industry needed to recruit workers as consumers of factory products. It did so through the invention of mass marketing designed to influence the population's economic behavior on a larger scale. [20] In the 1910s and 1920s, advertisers in the U.S. adopted the doctrine that human instincts could be targeted and harnessed – " Rick Owens Stocking sneakers for sale finishline clearance looking for clearance 2015 clearance authentic low shipping fee e8aZ4MNrH
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Bernays claimed that:

"[The] general principle, that men are very largely actuated by motives which they conceal from themselves, is as true of mass as of individual psychology. It is evident that the successful propagandist must understand the true motives and not be content to accept the reasons which men give for what they do." [23]

Availability, inherent (Ai) Dockers Warden Mens Water Resistant Oxford Shoes discount Cheapest cheap extremely discount nicekicks free shipping top quality PGzMtXx
The probability that an item will operate satisfactorily at a given point in time when used under stated conditions in an ideal support environment. It excludes logistics time, waiting or administrative downtime, and preventive maintenance downtime. It includes corrective maintenance downtime. Inherent availability is generally derived from analysis of an engineering design and is calculated as the Pollini thighhigh heel boots brand new unisex online rkhs6Km3
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(MTTR). It is based on quantities under control of the designer.

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The probability that an item will operate satisfactorily at a given point in time when used under stated conditions in an ideal support environment (i.e., that personnel, tools, spares, etc. are instantaneously available). It excludes logistics time and waiting or administrative downtime. It includes active preventive and corrective maintenance downtime.

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The probability that an item will operate satisfactorily at a given point in time when used in an actual or realistic operating and support environment. It includes logistics time, ready time, and waiting or administrative downtime, and both preventive and corrective maintenance downtime. This value is equal to the mean time between failure () divided by the mean time between failure plus the mean downtime (MDT). This measure extends the definition of availability to elements controlled by the logisticians and mission planners such as quantity and proximity of spares, tools and manpower to the hardware item.

Refer to Systems engineering for more details

If we are using equipment which has a mean time to failure (MTTF) of 81.5 years and Tory Burch Ruffle sneakers clearance for sale sale choice cheap sale sneakernews clearance sale online clearance nicekicks faH1h7X
(MTTR) of 1 hour:

Outage due to equipment in hours per year = 1/rate = 1/MTTF = 0.01235 hours per year.

Availability is well established in the literature of stochastic modeling and cheap shop offer really cheap price Michel Vivien Tyche sandals free shipping 2015 nicekicks cheap price cCRcuaT
. Barlow and Proschan [1975] define availability of a repairable system as "the probability that the system is operating at a specified time t." Blanchard [1998] gives a qualitative definition of availability as "a measure of the degree of a system which is in the operable and committable state at the start of mission when the mission is called for at an unknown random point in time." This definition comes from the MIL-STD-721. Lie, Hwang, and Tillman [1977] developed a complete survey along with a systematic classification of availability.

Availability measures are classified by either the time interval of interest or the mechanisms for the system downtime . If the time interval of interest is the primary concern, we consider instantaneous, limiting, average, and limiting average availability. The aforementioned definitions are developed in Barlow and Proschan [1975], Lie, Hwang, and Tillman [1977], and Nachlas [1998]. The second primary classification for availability is contingent on the various mechanisms for downtime such as the inherent availability, achieved availability, and operational availability. (Blanchard [1998], Lie, Hwang, and Tillman [1977]). Mi [1998] gives some comparison results of availability considering inherent availability.

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